Ethnobotanicals in the Santa Fe Botanical Garden

Ethnobotany is the scientific study of the relationship between people and plants. New Mexico ethnobotany specifically involves the uses of plants by both the indigenous peoples and the early Spanish settlers in the state. Some of the plants utilized were growing here when the earliest people came to the area and others were brought by those settling at a later date whether they be native Americans or Europeans. Plants in this category are currently or have had various daily uses.

The Santa Fe Botanical Garden categorizes the various sections in Ojos y Manos as:

Food, Wood & Tools, Weaving & Dying and Medical

The Santa Fe Botanical Garden at Museum Hill currently grows several of these plants. Below is a list of the plants that are grown and a description of how they were or are currently used:


Ojos y Manos Ethnobotanicals

Medicine

(Click on Food & Other links for further info)

 

 

 

Trees - Evergreen

Juniper, One-seeded - Juniperus monasperma
****
****
****
Pine, Pinion - Pinus edulis
****
****
****
Pine, Ponderosa - Pinus pondersoa
****
****
****

Trees - Deciduous

Maple, Bigtooth - Acer saccharum subsp. grandidentatum
****
****
****
Maple, ROCKY MOUNTAIN GLOW -
****
****
****
Acer saccharum subsp. grandidentatum 'Schmidt'
 
Hackberry, Netleaf - Celtis laevigata var. retioculata
****
****
****
Cottonwood, Rio Grande - Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni
****
****
****
Oak, Texas Red - Quercus buckleyi
****
****
****
Oak, Gambel - Quercus gambelii
****
****
****
Oak, Bur - Quercus marocarpa
****
****
****
Oak, Chikapin - Quercus muehlenbergii
****
****
****

Semi-evergreen Shrubs/Subshrubs

Sagebrush, Sand - Artemisia filifolia
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****
****
Saltbush, Fourwing - Atriplex canescens
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****
****
Bitterbush, Antelope - Purshia tridentata
****
****
Plume, Desert Princes' - Stanleya pinnata
****
****

Evergreen Shrubs/Subshrubs

Sagebrush, Big - Artemisia tridentata
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****
****
Mahogany, Curl-leaf Mountain - Cercocarpus ledifolius
****
****
Mahogany, True Mountain - Cercoparpus montanus
****
****
Holly, Desert - Mahonia haematocarpa
****
****
****
Penstemon, SILVERTON Bluemat -
****
Penstemon linarioides subsp. coloradoensis 'PO14S'
Penstemon, Pineleaf - Penstemon pinifolius
****
Penstemon, Bridges' Beard tongue - Penstemon rostriflorus
****
Penstemon, Sidebells - Penstemon secundiflorus
Globemallow, 'Louis Hamilton' -
****
****
****
Sphaeralcea ambigua 'Louis Hamilton'

Deciduous Shrubs/Subshrubs

Serviceberry, Utah - Amelanchier utahensis
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****
****
Lead Plant - Amorpha canescens
****
****
****
Rabbitbush (Chamisa) - Chrysothammus nauseosus
****
****
****
Apache Plume - Fallugia paradoxa
****
****
Privet, New Mexico - Forestiera pubescens
****
****
****
Four-O'-Clock, Desert - Mirabilis multiflora
****
****
Bee-Balm (Mintleaf Bergamont) -
****
****
****
Monarda fistulosa var. menthisfolia
Sumac, Threeleaf - Rhus trilobata
****
****
****
Sumac, 'Autumn Amber' (Creeping Sumac) -
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****
****
Rhus trilobata 'Autumn Amber'
Currant, Golden - Ribes aureum
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****
****
Currant, Wax - Ribes cereum
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****
****
Mule's Ears - Scabrethia scabra

Herbaceous Perennials

Hummingbird Mint (Hyssop) - Agastache cana
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****
Yerba Mansa - Anemopsis californica
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****
Pricklypoppy, Southwestern - Argemone pleiacantha
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****
Blanketflower - Gaillardia aristata
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****
****
Flax, Blue - Linum perenne
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****
****
Primrose, Pale Evening - Oenathera pallida
****
Penstemon, Scarlet Bugler - Penstemon barbatus
****
Penstemon, Cardinal - Penstemon cardinalis
Sage, Azure - Salvia azurea
Groundsel,Threadleaf - Senecio flaccidus
****
****
Cota, (Tea, Navajo) - Thelesperma megapotamicum
****
****
****

Evergreen Perennials

Yarrow, Western - Achillea millefolium
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****
****
Beargrass - Nolina microcarpa
****
****
****

Deciduous Perennials

Daisy, Chocolate - Berlandiera lyrata
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****
Jimsonweed (Sacred Datura) - Datura innoxia
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****
Sunflower, Maximilian - Helianthus maximiliani
****
Morning Glory, Bush - Ipomoea leptophylla
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****
****
Primrose, Evening Tufted -
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Oenothera caespitosa subsp. marginata
Zinnia, Prairie - Zinnia grandiflora
****
****

Cacti/Succulents

Yucca, Soapweed - Yucca glauca
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****
****
Yucca, Banana - Yucca baccata
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****
****
Yucca, Faxon - Yucca faxoniana
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****
****

Grasses

Ricegrass, Indian - Oryzopsis hymenoides
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****
Grass, Indian - Sorghastrum nutans
****
****

Ethnobotanicals in Santa Fe Botanical Garden's Ojos y Manos - Alphabetical Listing of Common Names


The Orchard Garden Ethnobotanicals
Food
Medicine
Other

Welcome Garden

Globemallow, Monro's - Sphaeralcea munroana
****
****
****
Juniper, Rocky Mountain - Juniperus sclpulorum
****
****
****
Serviceberry, Utah - Amelanchier utahensis
****
****
****

Meadow Garden

Flax, Blue - Linum perenne lewisii
****
****
****
Grass, Little Bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium      
 
Grass, Sideoats Gramma - Bouteloua curtipendula      
Joint Fir, Bluestem (Mormon Tea) - Ephedra equiseina
****
****
****
Mullein - Verbascum thapsus
****
****
****
Oak, Gambel - Quercus gambelii
****
****
****
Pine, Ponderosa - Pinus pondersoa
****
****
****

Above the Orchard Wall

Apache Plume - Fallugia paradoxa
****
****
Broom Snakeweed - Gutierrezia sarothrae  
****
****
Cholla, Cane - Opuntia imbricata
****
****
****
Clover, Sweet - Melilotus officinalis
****
****
Juniper, One-seed - Juniperus monasperma
****
****
****
Mountain Mahogany - Cercocarpus spp.
****
****
Pinion Pine - Pinus edulis
****
****
****
Privet, New Mexico - Forestiera pubescens
****
****
****
Rabbitbush (Chamisa) - Chrysothammus nauseosus
****
****
****
Sumac, Threeleaf - Rhus trilobata
****
****
****
Yucca, Soapweed - Yucca glauca
****
****
****

Orchard Perennial Borders

Pussytoes, Pink - Antennaria dioica 'Rubra'
****

Xeric Garden

Beargrass - Nolina microcarpa
****
****
****
Cactus, Prickly Pear - Opuntia spp.
****
****
****

Other Common Ethnobotanicals in New Mexico Not in the Garden

Food
Medicine
Other
Amaranth - Amaranthus spp. **** ****
Aster, Hairy Golden - Chrysopsis villosa   **** ****
Aster, Purplestem -Symphyotrichum puniceum   ****
Aster, Sand - Chaetopappa ericoides ****
Beeplant, Rocky Mountain - Cleome serrulata **** **** ****
Bindweed - Convolulus arvensis **** ****
Black-eyed Susan - Rudbeckia hirta ****
Buffalo Gourd - Curcurbita foetidissima **** **** ****
Burdock - Arctium spp. **** ****
Chokecherry - Prunus virginiana **** **** ****
Daisy, Paper - Psilostrophe tagetina **** ****
   
Daisy, Spreading Fleabane - Erigeron divergens   **** ****
 
Daisy, Whiplash - Erigeron flagellaris **** ****
Dandelion - Taraxacum officinale **** ****
Dock - Rumex spp. **** **** ****
Goldenrod - Solidago spp. **** **** ****
Golden Smoke/Scrambled Eggs -

Corydalis aurea
  **** ****
Goosefoot (Lamb's-Quarter) -   ****  
Chenopodium spp.
     
Groundcherry - Physalis spp. **** ****
Gumweed - Grindelia spp. **** **** ****
Horse-Nettle - Solanum elaeagnifolium **** ****
Horseweed (Mare's Tail) - Conyza canadensis ****
Hymenopappus, Fineleaf -

Hymenopappus fillifolius

**** ****
Locust, New Mexico - Robinia neomexicana **** **** ****
Milkweed - Asclepias spp. **** **** ****
Mustard, Plains Slimleaf - Schoenocrambe linear ****
Mustard, Western Tansy - Descurainia pinnata **** **** ****
Paintbrush, Indian - Castilleja integra **** ****
Penstemon, James - Penstemon jamesii ****
Pepperweed - Lepidium virginicum **** ****
Plum, Wild - Prunus americana ****
Plantain - Plantago major **** **** ****
Purslane - Portulaca oleracea **** ****
Raspberry - Rubus spp. **** ****
Rose, Wild - Rosa spp. **** **** ****
Russian Thistle, Prickly - Salsola tragus **** ****
Salsify - Tragopogon dubius **** **** ****
Scorpionweed - Phacelia spp.   ****
Storks's-bill, Common - Erodium cicutarium **** **** ****
Sunflower, Annual - Helianthus annuus **** **** ****
Velvetweed - Gaura mollis **** **** ****
Wolfberry - Lycium pallidum **** **** ****